We need to rethink how we address the Sustainable Development Goals in rich countries
The way to achieve equitable prosperity within planetary boundaries differs depending on the income level of countries. In rich countries, we are on the wrong track. Concentrating on reducing inequalities will likely help us out of this problem.
I have been hooked on the idea of sustainability since the Rio Declaration of 1992. At the time I was a young activist working with an NGO trying to get France to sign an agreement to create with Monaco and Italy what is now the Pelagos Sanctuary. At 18, coming from a modest background, I was a bit uneasy with the conservation movement. Our use of nature had been going in a wrong direction for some time, but I could not see how fencing people away from nature was going to redress that. To me, we needed instead to find ways for people to find their place as one of the many agents of nature.
Here came Principle 1 of the Rio Declaration: “Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.” I still think it is the only solution. Many of you will know the rest of the story. Implementing the Rio Declaration proved difficult. In the early 2000s we decided to prioritise some goals to address the many wicked problems emerging when tackling sustainability. I think we learned a lot from the 10 years of working towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) despite their mixed success. What I learned is that sustainability is an emergent property of the complex adaptive system which is defined by global social, economic, and ecological interactions.
This is important because at the same time a revolution was taking place in sciences: the emergence of a new way to look at networks; network science. These new insights really helped to gain a new perspective on the way complex adaptive systems work across domains.
The new iteration of ‘sustainability prioritisation’ came in 2015. I find that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) identified in more details the key “levers” available to achieve sustainability not just for low income countries, but for all. From their inception, there was a clear understanding that the SDGs interact but the whole picture of those interactions was murky. It looked like some conflicts emerged in some instances and not in others. It felt natural to take a network science approach to study the whole of the SDG interactions, what we called the sustainome (find out more in the article published in Nature Sustainability), to gain perspective on the best ways for sustainability to emerge. Using this approach, we were able to move beyond pairwise conflicts and understand how to prioritise goals to maximise benefits for all SDGs. Focussing on poverty alleviation in low income countries will really bring added value to all SDGs. Focussing on reducing inequalities in high income countries will do the same.
The sustainomes of countries from low- and high- World Bank income groups. The goals that have been associated over the past 27 years are linked by a red line if their progress conflicts or a blue line if they are compatible (see the study for more details). Credits (icons): United Nations (SDG).
It also tells us that our approach to sustainability for low-income countries is on track to deliver on all SDGs. It is not the case for high-income countries. I personally think that it is because for too long sustainability has been reduced to sustainable development and we have not paid enough attention to the specificities of SDG conflicts in high income countries. We will not be able to achieve all SDGs in high income countries using the approaches we have used over the past 25 years. Particularly climate actions (SDG13) and responsible consumption (SDG12) conflict with our ability to reduce inequalities (SDG10). The crucial part is that these conflicts emerge indirectly from the goal interactions, those particular goals do not directly conflict (see the sustainome figures above).
Trying to make progress on climate action (SDG13) and responsible consumption (SDG12) in the way we have tried so far is generating conflicts with the other goals. There is particularly indirect tensions between those goals and our ability to reduce inequalities. We need to place inequalities at the core of our actions to reduce consumption and change our climate impacts.
We need a new sustainability deal. A deal which ensures that all have the same opportunities during our transition to low carbon, responsible consumption economies.